But even a hard-core terminal shell & editor developer needs some help for productivity. Make is a key productivity tool for developing code.
Back in the old days (say just after punch cards were no more; way before my time), most people would write code in one big source file and then would just invoke the compiler to build the executable. So your entire code would be in a single file. Not very convenient for editing. Certainly not convenient for working collaboratively. When codes got bigger, it just became impractical. Compile times became huge, since every time a single line changed in one routine, the entire code needed to be compiled.
So people started breaking up their code into pieces, each of them living in its own source file. That's natural, since code is usually broken down into some kind of logical parts (e.g., subroutines and functions in procedural programming, classes/objects in object-oriented programming). So it makes sense to put logical units of the code into their own source files. But how do you get your executable built from an array of source files? How do you prevent that not everything has to be recompiled all the time?
This is where Make comes in!
Let's assume we are working with Fortran 90+ here and compile things using
gfortran(if you like C better, just replace everything Fortran specific with C; or with whateva language you like). Let's say you have three source files.
main_program.F90 subroutine_one.F90 subroutine_two.F90
Note that I am using upper case F90, instead the more common f90. The upper case tells the compiler to pre-process the source files before compiling them. In this way, we can use preprocessor directives, see here if you are interested: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directive_(programming). We won't use these directives here, but perhaps I'll write a post about them in the future.
So that you can follow along easily, let's actually write these routines:
main_program.F90: program myprogram implicit none call subroutine_one call subroutine_two end program myprogram
subroutine_one.F90: subroutine subroutine_one implicit none write(*,*) "Hi, I am subroutine one" end subroutine_one
subroutine_two.F90: subroutine subroutine_two implicit none write(*,*) "Hi, I am subroutine two" end subroutine_two
Naively, you could build your program this way:
So every single time you compile, everything gets compiled. This produces an executable called
gfortran -g -O3 -o myprogram main_program.F90 subroutine_one.F90 subroutine_two.F90
myprogram. By the way, the options I am using in the compile line are: "
-g" -- add debug symbols and "
-O3" -- optimize aggressively (not really needed here, but I do it out of habit (I want fast code!)).
Recompiling is of course no problem if the routines don't do anything of substance as in our example. But let's for a moment assume that each of these routines does something incredibly complicated that takes minutes or longer to compile. You don't want to have to recompile everything if you made a change in only one of the source files. The trick to avoid this is to first build object files (file suffix "
.o"), then to link them together and only remake those whose source files changed.
Let Make take care of figuring out what changed. You tell Make what to do by writing a makefile in which you specify what you want to make and what it depends on. Here is the makefile for our example. Call it
Makefile, then Make will automatically find it when you type
makeon the command line. Here is what will be in your makefile:
FC=gfortran FCFLAGS=-g -O3 myprogram: main_program.o subroutine_one.o subroutine_two.o $(FC) $(FCFLAGS) -o myprogram main_program.o subroutine_one.o subroutine_two.o main_program.o: main_program.F90 $(FC) $(FCFLAGS) -c main_program.F90 subroutine_one.o: subroutine_one.F90 $(FC) $(FCFLAGS) -c subroutine_one.F90 subroutine_two.o: subroutine_two.F90 $(FC) $(FCFLAGS) -c subroutine_two.F90 clean: rm -f *.o
There is a very clear structure to this. The first two lines are definitions of variables you are using later -- the compiler and the compiler flags (you could call these variables anything you want). Then you have lines that start with the target on the left, followed by a colon. After the colon, you list the things that the target depends on (the dependencies). This tells Make what needs to be done before working on the current target. So in our case,
myprogramdepends on a bunch of object files. The rules for making these sub-targets are specified subsequently. One important thing to remember: In the line where you tell Make what to do for a given target (once the dependencies are met and up-to-date), the first character on that line has to be a tabulator character (i.e., you have to hit your "tab" key). Only this gives the actual command the correct indentation (that's something historic, I guess). But clearly this is not a show stopper!
Note the "
clean" target -- I added this so that you can easily clean things up.
So, for example, let's say you want to compile your code, but you want to compile it freshly from scratch. The first thing you do is say (on the command line)
make clean. This will get rid of all previously compiled object files. Next you just type
makeand Make will compile and link everything for you! Now you go and work on one of the source files. You save it and then you want to recompile. Just type
make. This time only the source file that you changed is recompiled and then linked together with the other object files to make the executable. Voilá!
I hope you see the benefits of using Make now! Make is of course much more powerful than this simple example can tell. You can read more about more advanced uses of Make here and here and here and at many other places that your favorite search engine will find for you.
Before I close, there is one more thing I want to mention: Make is also great for compiling LaTeX documents, in particular if you are using cross-referencing and a bibliography software like BibTeX.
Here is an example makefile for compiling a LaTeX document called
paper.pdfwith BibTeX. I assume that you have your BibTeX bibliography entries in a file called
This should work. Enjoy!
paper.pdf: paper.tex paper.bib pdflatex paper.tex bibtex paper pdflatex paper.tex pdflatex paper.tex